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英語寫作中的常見錯誤及解析

作者: admin來源: 網絡文章 時間: 2019-02-23

一、不一致(Disagreements)

所謂不一致不光指主謂不一致,它還包括了數的不一致的時態不一致及代詞不一的致等。

例1、When one have money, he can do what he want to.

(人一旦有了錢,他就能想干什么就干什么。)

剖析:one是單數第三人稱,因而本句的have應改為has;同理,want應改為wants。本句是典型的主謂不一致。

改為:的Once one has money, he can do what he wants (to do).

 

二、修飾語錯位(Misplaced Modifiers)

英語與漢語不同,同一個修飾語置于句子不同的位置,句子的含義可能引起變化。對于這一點中國學生往往沒有引起足夠的重視,因而造成了不必要的誤解.例1、I believe I can do it well and I will better know the world outside the campus.剖析:better位置不當,應置于句末。

 

三、句子不完整(Sentence Fragments)

在口語中,交際雙方可借助手勢語氣上下文等,不完整的句子完全可以被理解。可是書面語就不同了,句子結構不完整會令意思表達不清,這種情況常常發生在主句寫完以后,筆者又想加些補充說明時發生。

例1、There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV, radio, newspaper and so on.

剖析:本句后半部分“for example by TV, radio, newspaper and so on .”不是一個完整的句子,僅為一些不連貫的詞語,不能獨立成句。

改為:There are many ways to know society, for example, by TV, radio, and newspaper.

 

四、懸垂修飾語(Dangling Modifiers)

所謂懸垂修飾語是指句首的短語與后面句子的邏輯關系混亂不清。例如:At the age of ten, my grandfather died. 這句中“at the age of ten”只點出十歲時,但沒有說明“誰”十歲時。按一般推理不可能是my grandfather, 如果我們把這個懸垂修飾語改明確一點,全句就不那么費解了。改為:When I was ten, my grandfather died.

例1、To do well in college, good grades are essential.

剖析:句中不定式短語 “to do well in college”的邏輯主語不清楚。

改為:To do well in college, a student needs good grades.

 

五、詞性誤用(Misuse of Parts of Speech)

“詞性誤用”常表現為:介詞當動詞用;形容詞當副詞用;名詞當動詞用等。

例1、None can negative the importance of money.

剖析:negative 系形容詞,誤作動詞。

改為:None can deny the importance of money.

 

六、指代不清(Ambiguous Reference of Pronouns)

指代不清主要講的是代詞與被指代的人或物關系不清,或者先后所用的代詞不一致。試看下面這一句:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.(瑪麗和我姐姐很要好,因為她要她做她的伴娘。)讀完上面這一句話,讀者無法明確地判斷兩位姑娘中誰將結婚,誰將當伴娘。如果我們把易于引起誤解的代詞的所指對象加以明確,意思就一目了然了。這個句子可改為:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.

例1. And we can also know the society by serving it yourself.

剖析:句中人稱代詞we 和反身代詞yourself指代不一致。改為:We can also know society by serving it ourselves.

 

七、不間斷句子(Run-on Sentences)

什么叫run-on sentence?請看下面的例句。

例1、There are many ways we get to know the outside world.

剖析:這個句子包含了兩層完整的意思:“There are many ways.”以及“We get to know the outside world”。簡單地把它們連在一起就不妥當了。

改為:There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. 或: There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world.

 

八、措詞毛病(Troubles in Diction)

Diction 是指在特定的句子中如何適當地選用詞語的問題,囿于教學時間緊迫,教師平時在這方面花的時間往往極其有限,影響了學生在寫作中沒有養成良好的推敲,斟酌的習慣。他們往往隨心所欲,拿來就用。所以作文中用詞不當的錯誤比比皆是。

例1、The increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution.

(農業方面化學物質使用的不斷增加也造成了污染。)

剖析:顯然,考生把obstacles“障礙”,“障礙物”誤作substance“物質”了。另外“the increasing use”(不斷增加的使用)應改為“abusive use”(濫用)。

改為:The abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes/leads to pollution.

 

九、累贅(Redundancy)

言以簡潔為貴。寫句子沒有一個多余的詞;寫段落沒有一個無必要的句子。能用單詞的不用詞組;能用詞組的不用從句或句子。如:In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him.本句的“the fact that he is lazy”系同謂語從句,我們按照上述“能用詞組的不用從句”可以改為:In spite of his laziness, I like him.

例1、For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need.

剖析:整個句子可以大大簡化。

改為:Diligent, caring people use money only to buy what they need.

 

十、不連貫(Incoherence)

不連貫是指一個句子前言不對后語,或是結構上不暢通。這也是考生常犯的毛病。

例1、The fresh water, it is the most important things of the earth.

剖析:The fresh water 與逗號后的it 不連貫。It 與things 在數方面不一致。

改為:Fresh water is the most important thing in the world.

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